Academia, industry, and government have been developing systems that simultaneously improve automotive safety and highway capacity for over 30 years. One approach toward improving vehicle safety incorporates sensors and computers that assume control over a vehicle, either in part or in whole. Connected vehicles can communicate with other vehicles and/or transportation infrastructure (such as traffic signals). There is a wide range of vehicle automation concepts, ranging from adaptive cruise control systems that only control a vehicles speed and following distance to fully automated systems that take on the entire dynamic driving task. California PATH has been involved in the research, development, and testing of connected and automated vehicles since its inception in 1986.